The seeking and gaining of positions of representation of constituents and to apply the authority of representation is a delicate task. This is because representation carries with it assumptions both on the part of the represented and the representative of what their function is.

Today, although the first written constitutional documents in England had no role for political parties and, in fact, they sought to avoid the formation of power groups by not permitting politicians to serve in consecutive parliaments, today political parties dominate the organization of representation.

However, in the United Kingdom in Spring 2022, the total membership of all political parties did not surpass 1.25% of the total electorate. Political parties are tiny private factional organizations. In spite of this the electoral process is largely based on candidates for election being members of political parties and being elected on the basis of a party manifesto.

Because political parties are so small they do not possess within their membership considerable amounts of funding and as a result they tend to be easily "captured" by wealthy benefactors whose interests might not coincide with the majority of those who might have voted for the party concerned. It is therefore quite common for voting by a party membership in parliament supporting legislation which in not in any manifesto but which aligns with the interests of benefactors.

There are here numerous constitutional issues linked to the degree to which members of parliament are permitted to represent the interests of their constituency and under what conditions are they enticed to vote certain ways by the party whips. In this context strategic studies have an important role in unraveling flawed logic supporting legislation and regulations across sectors by gathering evidence.

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